Principle and Structure of Transformer

Principle and Structure of Transformer

Principle and Structure of Transformer

The transformer is a device .which uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to change the AC voltage. The main components are the primary coil. The secondary coil and the core (magnetic core). In electrical equipment and wireless circuits, it is commonly used for lifting voltage, matching impedance, safety isolation, etc. In a generator, whether the coil is moving through a magnetic field or the magnetic field is moving through a fixed coil. The electric potential can be induced in the coil. Both cases, the value of the magnetic flux is unchanged. But the number of magnetic flux of the chain intersecting the coil is changed. Which is the principle of mutual induction. It is a device that uses electromagnetic mutual inductance to transform voltage, current and impedance.

Transformer components

It include the body (iron core, winding, insulation, lead), transformer oil, fuel tank and cooling device, pressure regulator, protection device (moisture absorber, safety airway, gas relay, oil storage tank and temperature measurement device, etc.) and outlet bushing. Specific composition and function:

  • (1) Iron core. The core is the main part of the magnetic circuit in the transformer. Usually contains high silicon content, thickness of 0.35mm, 0.3mm, 0.27mm, the surface is coated with insulating paint hot rolled or cold rolled silicon steel sheet . The core is divided into two parts: the core column and the transverse plate, and the core column ; The transverse plate is used to close the magnetic circuit.
  • (2) Winding. The winding is the circuit part of the transformer, which is wound with double silk-covered insulated flat wire or enamelled round wire.
  • (3)The basic principle of the transformer is the principle of electromagnetic induction, now take the single-phase double-winding transformer as an example to explain its basic working principle: when the voltage U1 is added to the primary side winding, the current flowing through I1, the alternating magnetic flux is generated in the iron core, these magnetic flux is called the main magnetic flux, under its action, the two sides of the winding respectively induction potential, and finally drive the transformer control device.


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